Medically reviewed by Shahzadi Devje, Registered Dietitian (RD) & Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE)
Dairy - There are few foods as controversial as dairy. I mean, it used to be an entire food group, right? And there are definitely some people who say you need it. But, there are others who say to avoid it. And no one disputes that some people react to it. And by “react,” I mean both dairy intolerance and dairy allergies. But whether you love it, hate it, react to it, or avoid it, I have an amazing dairy-free recipe for you.
Having a food intolerance is not fun. It can cause abdominal pain, discomfort, and nausea. It also causes embarrassing symptoms like flatulence and diarrhea. Other symptoms linked to food intolerances include muscle or joint pain, headaches, exhaustion, and even skin symptoms like rashes and eczema.
Dairy is just one of those foods that many people seem to be intolerant of. Let’s talk about the main components of milk that people react to: lactose, casein, and whey.
Dairy Intolerance: Milk sugar (lactose) intolerance
According to The National Institute of Health, it’s estimated that around 65 percent of people globally, have a reduced ability to digest lactose after infancy. Lactose intolerance in adulthood is most common in those of East Asian descent, along with those of West African, Arab, Jewish, Greek, and Italian descent. Apart from one’s ethnic background, there are other reasons that can contribute to lactose intolerance. For instance, issues with the digestive tract; such as inflammation (Crohn’s disease or celiac disease) can lead to a reduced production of the enzyme. Certain antibiotics or a bout of infection can interfere with one’s ability to product the lactase enzyme. Not to mention, as you age, the ability to produce lactase declines naturally.
Lactose is the carbohydrate “milk sugar” naturally found in most dairy products. Lactose intolerance is so common, that you can buy lactose-free milk in your regular grocery store. Lactose-free products are treated with the enzyme “lactase” that breaks the lactose down before you ingest it. It’s this lactase enzyme that is lacking in most people who are lactose intolerant.
The lactase enzyme is naturally released from your intestine as one of your digestive enzymes. It breaks down the lactose sugar in the gut. When someone doesn't have enough lactase, the lactose doesn't get broken down the way it should. Undigested lactose ends up being food for the resident gut microbes. As they ferment the lactose, they create gases that cause bloating, flatulence, pain, and sometimes diarrhea.
Lactose is in dairy, but is in lower amounts, in fermented dairy (e.g. cheese & yogurt) and butter. Steering clear of lactose isn't that easy as it is added to other foods like baked goods, soups, and sauces. And if you're taking any medications or supplements, check to see if it's in there too, as lactose is a common ingredient in them.
If you have symptoms of lactose intolerance, keep an eye on food, medication, and supplement labels.
Milk protein (casein & whey) allergy
Milk is a known, and common, food allergen. In Canada, it is considered a “priority allergen” and must be declared on food labels.
So, what are the allergens in milk? You've heard of "curds and whey?" Well, these are the two main proteins in milk. The solid bits are the curds (made of casein), and the liquid is the dissolved whey.
Unlike lactose intolerance, casein and whey can cause an actual immune response. It’s an allergy. And this immune response can cause inflammation. In fact, we don’t know how many people have these milk allergies, but most estimates put it far below that of lactose intolerance.Dairy: Full of nutrition… or allergens? If you suspect you react to dairy in any way, check out this blog post to learn the most common compounds that cause issues, the differences between them, and how to avoid them. #dietitian… Click To Tweet
Like lactose, these allergenic milk proteins can be found in other products too. They're not just in dairy but are often in protein powders as well (Have you heard of "whey" protein powders?).
Some of the symptoms of milk protein allergy differ from that of lactose intolerance; things like nasal congestion and mucus (phlegm) are more common here. And casein seems to be correlated with belly fat loss.
Interestingly, people who have gluten intolerance are often allergic to milk proteins like whey and casein as well. These can go hand-in-hand.
Like lactose intolerance, if you're allergic to casein and whey, keep a close eye on food labels so you can avoid these.
If you get gassy, bloated, or diarrhea after eating dairy, you may have a lactose intolerance. If you often get a stuffy nose and mucus, then you may be allergic to casein and/or whey.
While dairy may be an entire food group, it is not an essential nutrient. All the nutrients in dairy are available in other foods. If you experience these symptoms, you can try removing dairy from your diet. You may find improved digestion and fewer gut issues. Or you may find improved nasal congestion.
Recipe (Dairy-free): Strawberry Kiwi Banana Nice Cream
More Dairy-Free Recipes You May Like:
- Easy Golden Milk Turmeric Coffee
- Caffeine-Free Chai Latte
- Chia Chocolate Pudding With Mint
- Superfood Green Smoothie Bowl
If you decide to (or have already) removed dairy from your diet, let me know your experience in the comments below.
Shahzadi is an award-winning registered dietitian (RD) regulated by the College of Dietitians of Ontario and certified diabetes educator (CDE), approved by the Canadian Diabetes Educator Certification Board. A YouTuber and notorious foodie, she's dedicated to helping you end your cooking wars, transform your health, and be the best version of yourself! Shahzadi is an on-air nutrition expert for CTV Your Morning and a regular contributor for Global News and other national media outlets.